|The optimal collecting device for cervical cancer screening:|
|A new systematic review and meta-analysis shows: Liquid-based cervical cytology is neither more sensitive nor more specific for detection of highgrade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia compared with the conventional spatula Pap test and the number of false-positve results is higher than with the conventional spatula Pap test.|
|Reduces the number of false negative results thanks to the provision of highly representative cell material!|
THE SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA
ONE DEVICE, ONE SMEAR, ENOUGH REPRESENTATIVE CELLS FROM ALL ZONES!
New reference book
|Video Clip||Case Images||Advantages||Use||Studies|
|Cell sampling with the SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA is very reliable as well as very low-cost, very quick, and very easy.|
Print or download the Advantages of the SZALAY CYTO-Spatula (PDF file)
|One single smear always provides enough representative cell material from all zones (endo-, ectocervix and T-zone) of the cervix uteri.|
|Superficial layers of the epithelium make the collection of representative cell material more difficult or even impossible. Solution: The specially treated surface of the SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA enables cells to be sampled, even from the deeper cell layers where tumours often develop.|
|Today 20 % of all cervical carcinomas are found in the endocervix. Therefore it is indispensable to collect sufficient endocervical cell material.|
|The available range of shape and size of spatula enables cells to be sampled, even where the cervical canal is very narrow or almost closed.|
|When the cells are smeared correctly onto the slide, they arrange themselves in a single layer (monolayer). Connected cell structures are preserved.|
|It is very easy to spread sufficient cell material onto the slide thanks to the special design of the SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA (flat, no brush).|
|The conventional analysis of a smear taken with the SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA is very reliable and very quick and compared to other methods very inexpensive in particular for Cytologists and health insurances. Moreover, considerably less waste is produced.|
|A smear taken with the SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA provides highly reliable results for both conventional (Papanicolaou) and the newer very expensive but not really better liquid-based (Cell Suspension Based Cytologic) methods of analysis.|
|The SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA Plus is pre-scored and an ideal sampling device for liquid-based methods of analysis. The head of the Spatula can be detached easily from the stem and put directly in a transport vial with a preservative fluid.|
|The SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA is well-tried and simple to use.|
|A smear taken with the SZALAY CYTO-SPATULA is up to the standard of diagnosis in the BETHESDA SYSTEM.|
CSM Graf GmbH produces and markets the Szalay Cyto Spatula developed by Dr. L. Szalay for cytologic sampling of the cervix uteri. The Szalay Cyto-Spatula has undergone continuous development and improvement in recent years, and has meanwhile demonstrated its efficacy millions of times worldwide. Quality conscious cytologists and gynecologists have helped to see the breakthrough of the Szalay Cyto Spatula which has benefited women especially, since it is their health which is at stake. Our goal has thus been reached to a large extent by achieving a reduction in the number of false negative results thanks to the provision of highly representative cell material using the Szalay Cyto-Spatula.
A pap smear (also called smear test) is a medical screening test for early detection of cancer and other abnomralities in the female genital tract, by sampling cells from the cervix, using a swab. The cells are placed on a glass slide and checked for abnormalities in the laboratory. The test is simple and effective.
About 5% to 7% of pap smears produce abnormal results, such as dysplasia, a possibly pre-cancerous condition. Many of these abnormalities are not due to cervical cancer, but they are an indicator that increased vigilance is needed.
Depending on the guidelines of the screening programme in a given country, it is recommended that all sexually active women have an annual or biannual smear test to detect any cancer in its early stages. If results are abnormal, and depending on the nature of the abnormality, the test may need to be repeated in three to twelve months. If the abnormality requires closer scrutiny, the patient may be referred for a colposcopy.
The cervix (from Latin "neck") is actually the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. Approximately half its length is visible with appropriate medical equipment; the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view. It is occasionally called "cervix uteri", or "neck of the uterus".
The portion projecting into the vagina is referred to as the portio vaginalis or ectocervix. On average, the ectocervix is 3 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. It has a convex, elliptical surface and is divided into anterior and posterior lips.
The ectocervix's opening is called the external os. The size and shape of the external os and the ectocervix varies widely with age, hormonal state, and whether the woman has had a vaginal birth. In women who have not had a vaginal birth the external os appears as a small, circular opening. In women who have had a vaginal birth, the ectocervix appears bulkier and the external os appears wider, more slit-like and gaping.
The passageway between the external os and the uterine cavity is referred to as the endocervical canal. It varies widely in length and width, along with the cervix overall. Flattened anterior to posterior, the endocervical canal measures 7 to 8 mm at its widest in reproductive-aged women.
The endocervical canal terminates at the internal os which is the opening of the cervix inside the uterine cavity.
Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. Worldwide, it is the second most common cancer of women. It may present with vaginal bleeding but symptoms may be absent until the cancer is in advanced stages, which has made cervical cancer the focus of intense screening efforts utilizing the Pap smear. Most scientific studies point to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as a necessary pre-requisite for development of cervical cancer. Treatment is with surgery (including cryosurgery) in early stages and chemotherapy and radiotherapy in advanced stages of the disease.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used to identify disease in a unsuspecting population. Unlike most medicine, in screening, tests are performed on those without any clinical indication of disease. The intention of screening is to identify disease in a community early, thus enabling earlier intervention and management in the hope to reduce mortality and suffering from a disease. Although screening may lead to an earlier diagnosis, not all screening tests have been shown to benefit the person being screened; overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis, and creating a false sense of security are some potential adverse effects of screening.
A false positive, also called a Type I error, exists when a test incorrectly reports that it has found a positive result where none really exists.
In statistics, a false negative, also called a Type II error or miss, exists when a test incorrectly reports that a result was not detected, when it was really present.
Cell biology (also called cellular biology or cytology) is an academic discipline that studies cells. This includes their physiological properties such as their structure and the organelles they contain, their environment and interactions, their life cycle, division and function (physiology) and eventual death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level, and cell biology researches both single-celled organisms like bacteria and specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans.
Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. The most common use of cytopathology is the Pap smear, used to detect cervical cancer at an early treatable stage.
Gynaecology (British) or gynecology (North American) literally means 'the science of women', but in medicine this is the specialty of diseases of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina and ovaries)
Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, "to stand by") is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). Almost all modern obstetricians are also gynaecologists; see Obstetrics and gynaecology.
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